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Treacherous Mines: Africa’s Notorious Depths

by Jawaria Tariq
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Jawaria Tariq


Africa’s rich geological landscape has long been a source of fascination, economic opportunity, and danger. While the continent boasts an abundance of valuable minerals and resources, the pursuit of these treasures often comes at a high cost. From environmental degradation to hazardous working conditions, dangerous mines in Africa have left an indelible mark on both the land and its people. In this blog, we delve into some of the most notorious and perilous mines that have shaped the continent’s history and economy.

1. The Big Hole – Kimberley, South Africa

South Africa’s infamous Big Hole Located in Kimberley. This abandoned diamond mine is one of the largest hand-dug excavation sites on Earth. Operating from 1871 to 1914, the mine reached depths of over 700 feet and was dug entirely by hand. The dangerous conditions for the miners, lack of proper ventilation, and the constant threat of collapse made this mine a perilous workplace. Today, the Big Hole serves as a poignant reminder of the human cost associated with diamond extraction.

2. Kankoyo Copper Mine – Mufulira, Zambia

 In north to Zambia, the Kankoyo Copper Mine stands as a testament to the environmental hazards of mining. Once  this site was one of the largest copper mines in the world. However, reckless mining practices led to severe pollution of the surrounding air and water sources. The mine’s operations released harmful chemicals, including sulfur dioxide, into the atmosphere, leading to health issues for both miners and local communities. Efforts are now underway to mitigate the environmental damage caused by the mine’s operations.

3. Blyvooruitzicht Gold Mine – Carletonville, South Africa

Our next stop takes us back to South Africa, where the Blyvooruitzicht Gold Mine paints a stark picture of the social and economic impact of abandoned mines. Once a thriving gold mine, Blyvooruitzicht fell victim to mismanagement and financial troubles. The mine’s closure left thousands of workers unemployed, and the subsequent environmental degradation and decaying infrastructure have left a scar on the landscape. This mine serves as a reminder of the importance of responsible mine closure and the support needed for affected communities.

4. Obuasi Gold Mine – Obuasi, Ghana

Venturing to West Africa, we encounter the Obuasi Gold Mine in Ghana. While this mine has a storied history of producing vast amounts of gold, it has also faced criticism for its dangerous working conditions. Accidents and fatalities have been all too common in the past, prompting concerns over the safety of miners. Efforts are being made to improve safety measures and working conditions, highlighting the ongoing struggle to balance economic benefits with the well-being of workers.

5. Marikana Platinum Mine – Marikana, South Africa

Our final destination takes us to South Africa‘s Marikana Platinum Mine, which gained international attention in 2012 due to a tragic and violent incident. A strike by mine workers over wages escalated into a confrontation with law enforcement, resulting in the deaths of 34 miners and the injury of many others. This event shed light on the complex dynamics of labor relations, economic inequality, and social unrest in the mining industry.

6. Kolwezi Copper and Cobalt Mines – Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

The Democratic Republic of Congo holds immense mineral wealth, but its Kolwezi region exemplifies the dangers that can accompany these resources. Cobalt and copper mining operations here have been linked to hazardous working conditions, child labor, and rampant environmental degradation. The demand for these minerals, crucial for modern technologies, has led to a complex web of ethical and environmental concerns, bringing global attention to the dangerous practices in these mines.

7. Welkom Gold Mine – Welkom, South Africa

As we delve deeper into South Africa, the Welkom Gold Mine stands as a stark reminder of the intense pressures faced by miners. Carved out of the earth in the heart of the Free State province, this mine is known for its extreme depths, making it one of the deepest mines in the world. Miners in Welkom often work in cramped, hot, and perilous conditions, and the continuous seismic activity in the region adds an additional layer of risk to their work.

8. Mhangura Copper Mine – Mhangura, Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe’s Mhangura Copper Mine presents a complex tale of economic boom and subsequent collapse. This once-thriving mine fell into disarray due to mismanagement and economic turmoil. The closure left a community without jobs and a contaminated environment. The release of toxic mine waste into nearby water bodies affected both human health and the local ecosystem, highlighting the far-reaching consequences of abandoned mines.

9. Okiep Copper Mine – Okiep, South Africa

Returning to South Africa, the Okiep Copper Mine holds historical significance as one of the oldest mines in the country. However, it also serves as a stark reminder of the health hazards associated with mining. Miners here were exposed to high levels of arsenic due to the presence of arsenopyrite in the ore, leading to debilitating health conditions over time. The Okiep Copper Mine stands as a somber testament to the long-term health risks that miners often face.


Africa’s dangerous mines are a testament to the delicate balance between resource extraction, economic development, and human welfare. These mines reveal the pressing need for responsible mining practices, rigorous safety regulations, and sustainable approaches to ensure that the pursuit of valuable resources does not come at the expense of human lives, communities, and the environment. By acknowledging the perils associated with mining, we have the way for a more conscious and equitable approach to harnessing Africa’s rich geological treasures.

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